The Jamun tree has got a very significant place in the ayurvedic and traditional medicinal practices. It is especially very popular amongst diabetic patients because of its anti-diabetic properties. The Jamun tree is also known by many other names, Jamun is called ‘black plum’ in English, it is also called java plum, jambol, jambolan, jaman, Indian blackberry, and Indian blueberry. The Jamun tree is very well known for its pharmacological properties since ancient times.
The Jamun tree is native to the Indian subcontinent and it is very commonly found in almost all parts of India. This tree is also found in other countries like Thailand, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. There are many beneficial properties in the Jamun tree which are because of the presence of constituents like oxalic acid, gallic acid, malic acid, and tannins.
Almost all the parts of the Jamun tree are used in the traditional medicinal practices but it is believed that the leaves and bark of the Jamun tree are the most beneficial and virtuous part of the tree. The Jamun tree is considered to be anti-anemic, anti-diarrheal, anti-pyretic, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and gastroprotective in nature. It is a tree with many powerful virtues, and there is still a wide scope for exploration of different aspects of the application of the Jamun tree and its various parts in medicinal field.
Jamun Tree – Black Plum Tree – Description
The Jamun tree is a large evergreen tree that can reach up to a height of 30 meters, and it can live for more than 100 years. It belongs to the family ‘Myrtaceae’ and genus ‘Syzygium’, the scientific name of the Jamun tree is ‘Syzygium Cumini’. It is a fast-growing tree and at many places, these trees are cultivated as avenue trees.
The leaves of the Jamun tree are green in color, they grow in the opposite patterns. They are simple leaves with an entire margin and they have an elliptical to broadly oblong shape. The size of the leaves is generally about 10 to 15 cm and they have a pointed tip at the end.
The Jamun tree has a greyish or brown colored thick bark which exfoliates in woody scales. The wood of the Jamun tree is reddish or greyish in color, it is considered to be durable and strong, and it is used for building, constructional and agricultural purposes. The flowers of this tree are whitish or greenish in color, they have a good fragrance and they grow in clusters, they are round or oblong in shape and found in dichotomous paniculate cymes.
Jamun Fruit – Black Plum – Java Plum
Jamun fruits are also known as black plums and java plums, they are delicious purple-skinned fruits that are very rich in nutrients, they are considered an excellent source of nutrition for the human body. The Jamun fruits have been grown and consumed by humans for thousands of years, they have a very delicious and sweet flavor when they ripe.
The Jamun fruits are ready to be harvested when they feel soft, these ripe black plums can be detached from the tree easily. If the black plums are picked before riping, they can be put in a paper bag with the top folded over and then kept at room temperature for a day or two. This will allow the black plums to ripe properly, you can check the same with your fingertip. If it makes a little dent on pressing the fruit without puncturing the skin it shows that the fruit is in the perfect state for consumption.
Benefits And Uses Of Jamun Tree
Jamun fruits have many beneficial properties for the human body. Let’s have a look at some of these properties.
1. The Jamun fruit is considered helpful in balancing the blood sugar levels in the body. It is believed that they increase the level of the adiponectin hormone in the body which regulates blood sugar. This can prove to be very useful for those with diabetes or obesity.
2. Studies have shown that regular consumption of Jamun fruits can reduce anxiety and stress levels, the chlorogenic acids in the black plum fruits can reduce the damage caused by the imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body.
3. The Jamun fruit contains anthocyanins, these are the pigments that give red, purple, and blue fruits their rich coloring. They are also known for improving the health of the heart.
4. Jamun fruits or java plums also contain many essential vitamins like vitamin A, B2, B3, B4, B6, C, and K. They are also rich in many beneficial minerals such as manganese, magnesium, potassium, copper, and phosphorus.
5. The flavonoids present in the Jamun fruits help your body to function more efficiently, and they also protect it against everyday toxins and stress.
6. The black plums can be used for making delicious plum juice, which can be very effective in enhancing learning ability and memory functioning. If one drinks this juice regularly, then it lowers the risk of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease.
7. The vitamin A, zeaxanthin, and lutein present in the Jamun fruit help to protect the eyes from age-related macular degeneration and UV radiation from the sun.
8. Eating the Jamun fruits regularly is a very powerful way for improving the digestion process. The fibers and the enzymes in the Jamun fruits help the body to break down and digest the food and absorb all of the nutrients from the food.
How to Grow Jamun Fruit Tree – Black or Java Plum Tree
The Jamun fruit, java plum, or black plum is a very popular indigenous fruit of the Indian subcontinent. And growing a black plum tree in your backyard can be a very satisfying experience, as it produces awesome Jamun fruits which are both tasty and beneficial for health. If you take proper minimal required care, your plum tree will continue to bloom and it will produce plums for years.
The Jamun tree can be easily propagated from its seeds; it can also be propagated with other methods like air layering, grafting, cutting, etc. For growing this java plum tree take some of the fruits and remove the pulp or flesh from the plum and let it dry for one day. In the meantime, you can prepare a good potting mix for growing the tree.
For proper growth of the tree, you must ensure planting the seeds in well-drained soil, because these trees grow best in rich soil that does not remain continuously wet. If the soil retains a lot of water, it might cause the roots of the tree to rot. For preparing the potting mix you can take 60 percent normal garden soil, 20 percent fine sand, and 20% organic compost mix.
Fill this potting mix in some small containers or plastic cups, before that make a hole at the bottom and cover the hole with a small grater and then fill the potting mix. Then make a small hole in this potting mix and gently place the seeds in the hole and cover it with some more potting mix.
Make sure your planting site gets indirect sunlight; the black plum tree will need 6 to 8 hours of indirect sunlight each day to grow. Also, water your new tree at regular intervals; newly planted trees need plenty of water for the first few weeks after planting.
So you should water your plant properly so that the water gets into the soil, letting a tree get too dry can affect its growth and capacity of production of fruit. On the other hand, overwatering can damage the roots of the plant.
You should fertilize the Jamun tree after its first crop of fruit; spread a mild, slow-releasing fertilizer about one foot away from the trunk of the tree. A fertilizer that has equal parts nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium is recommended for the proper growth of the plum trees.
Pruning the young Jamun tree for the first time will set it in proper shape and encourage further growth of the tree. You should prune carefully, and remove away any affected fruits, twigs, leaves, or flowers.